Thursday, December 5, 2019

Market Opportunities for CQ University

Question: Discuss about the Market Opportunities for CQ University. Answer: Introduction Educational Industry is one of major sector that contribute to the economy of the country. There are more than 50 educational institutes in America. However, all these institutes are different from each other and are in competition with each others. The report discusses about the marketing plan of CQ University. The university has a good reputation only among the locals but also in the International market. Organizational Background CQ University was originally founded in 1967 in Rockhampton as a Queensland Institute of Technology Capricornia. This institute attended its full university status in 1992. At present, there are more than 30,000 students studying across the 25 campuses located across Australia. The university also runs its study centres in four cities and its delivers program in Cooma and Geraldton. These centres are through the partnership with local communities of the respective universities. There are approximately 300 educational and training programs, from short courses and certificates, undergraduates, postgraduates and the research degrees. According to the data released by Graduate Career Australia (CGA) indicates that the university has 81.1% overall employment rates. CQ University has also out performed in study support graduate employment and salary outcome of the graduates. In recent years, the university has established itself as a research focused university. There are many researches activities are being held by close collaboration and partnership with industry and community of these region universities. Market Summary and Demand Assessment Educational industry is one of the growing industries across the world. The estimated growth rate of the education industry would be around 7%. The growth rate indicates that there will more number of International and local students would be taking admission in Australian Universities. By 2025, it is estimated that the country will have more of International students as compared to other countries. Austrade is responsible for marketing and promotion of Australian education and training in the International market. There are universities who have signed the deal of their exchange from all over the world. There are lot of opportunities are been provided to all the International students in order to attract more and more number of students. China is one of the major source of International students. The education industry in Australia is $116 billion industry. The industry has close to 16,000 organization or businesses. This industry provided employment to more than 7,50,000 employees and the CAGR (compounded annual growth rate) of industry has been 3.5% (https://www.ibisworld.com.au/industry-trends/market-research-reports/education-training/education-training.html) . The market summary in terms of number of enrollment for Australian universities in general, CQU and Australian National university can be shown as: Source: https://www.australianuniversities.com.au/directory/student-numbers/ Segmentation Target Market Market segmentation means the process of dividing the broader marketing into small sub-groups according to types of characteristics. These sub-groups are knows as the segments ( Myers, 1996). The university has a good reputation in the country. The university is more connected through its alumni registration of more than 70 countries. The university has 650 in the world ranking. The University has one of largest research centre in the country. By 2020, there will be more the university is expected to introduce more number of courses. The university has more than 25 campuses across the country which makes it more accessible for the local students to study from their nearby campus that they want to. Some of the courses of the university have been rated well above the standard. The university has graduate, post graduate and research degrees and various other professional courses are being offered. Therefore, the target market of the university is wide and open for all the segments. Market Mix analysis Market mix is a tool which helps in analyzing any product or service. The concept of market mix includes in 4Ps of marketing such as Product, Price, Promotion and Place( Waterschoot and Bult, 1992). Product The University has more than 75 courses available including vocational, professional, distance-learning and full time. There are number of degree courses available for the students to choose from. The reputation of the university is world class as compared to the other university in the country. Price - The Fees of the university depend upon the courses of provided by the university. Promotion The University does not invest much on promoting its campus. They usually do it through the print media and the social media. The university has better network connectivity through its alumni network over 70 countries. Place - CQ University has almost 16 campuses across the country. Apart from their campuses, the University also owns the study hub, study centres and delivery sites. PESTEL analysis PEST analysis can be defined as the political, economic, social and technological factors. The PEST analysis helps to determine how these factors can be affect the performance and the long-term goal of the organization. It is a tool for business analysis (Team,2013). Political Legal In this factor all the government regulation and legal issues are assessed in terms of to affect the business environment and market. The Australian government is very supportive about the educational industry. The Austrade looks after the marketing the Australian education internationally. Economic This factor assess all the economic issues that can create an impact on the organization. Economic factors include inflation, interest rate, economic growth, unemployment rate and policies. The economic factor can have a major impact on the universities. The economic issue can directly hit the number of students take admission in the university. It is said that some time, Economic change can be positive for the Public Universities. Social This factor includes all the socio-economic issues of the market such as the customer demographic, cultural limitation, life style attitude and education. There has always been a support from the Australian citizens to open more and more educational institute that can help the economics of their country. As the new educational institute opens there will be more jobs for the young generations. Technological These factors include technological advancements, lifecycle of technologies, the role of internet etc. The university should always be upgraded with the technology for its smooth process. There are lot of automated jobs can help the university to achieve their end result faster and accurately. Environmental - The factors include all the factors can influence and determine by the environment. There arent any environmental factors that can affect the operation of the university. Competitor Analysis Competitor Analysis helps the organization to understand the competitions that are present in the market of the organization. The organization should know about the competitors that are present (Bronnenberg and Wathieu, 1996). There are several universities in Australia and they all compete with each other. One of the competitors of CQ University is Australian National University. Australian National University started in 1946 and CQ University started in 1967 but got its full university status in 1992. Therefore, Australian National University is older in CQ University. Australian National University (ANU) has 20934 students, which is more than CQ University. ANU has 47.8% undergraduate students as compared to 65.2% in CQ University, 51% post graduate students and CQ University has 24.2% postgraduate students. In total CQ University have 18,849 students. ANU has 22 QS world Ranking and CQU has 601+ QS Ranking. CQ University has one of the developed research centres and it is ranked 21 in Australian whereas, ANUs researches centre ranked 3 in Australia. According to student survey, the overall satisfactory of the student in Australian National University is approx 65% as compared to CQ University has 78.9%. SWOT analysis SWOT analysis is a tool to help an organization understand the internal and external factors that can affect the organization. The SWOT analysis is a part of strategic planning and helps an organization understand the strength of the organization and areas of where the improvements are required (Pickton and Wright,1998). Strengths CQ University has the highest full time graduate employment rate of 81.1% The university has various offerings from short term course certification to full time graduate, post graduate and research degrees. Distance learning program of CQ university is one leading courses among all the competitors Weakness Poor World ranking. The number of students enrolling in post graduation degree is less as compared to other universities. Opportunity To start with new course related to new technology. To start more of online courses. To launch the courses according to the requirement of the market. Threats The biggest treats are the competitors that are present in the market. The external factors such as economic, political and legal can be threat to the university. Value Brand Positioning Analysis Since, the university being old for more than 20 years and it full time employment rate is high comparatively to other universities. Due to these years, the brand positioning of the university is high. The university also signed singed the deal of exchange program for almost 100 countries. The university has more than 40,000 registered alumni network across the globe. It is expected that the university will keep growing in next 5 years. The brand equity of this university is high as compared to other universities in Australia. Conclusion The report discusses about the internal and external factors that can affect the University. It also discusses about the competitors, marketing mix and about the brand positing of the university in the Australian market. This report discusses about the university growth in next five years. The SWOT analysis helps to understand what are the Strengths and Weakness of the university. Reference Borden, N.H., 1964. The concept of the marketing mix.Journal of advertising research,4(2), pp.2-7. Van Waterschoot, W. and Van den Bulte, C., 1992. The 4P classification of the marketing mix revisited.The Journal of Marketing, pp.83-93. Team, F.M.E., 2013. PESTLE Analysis. Strategy Skills. Orfano, F., 2011. Components of a pestle analysis.Retrieved February. Pickton, D.W. and Wright, S., 1998. What's swot in strategic analysis?.Strategic change,7(2), pp.101-109. Bronnenberg, B.J. and Wathieu, L., 1996. Asymmetric promotion effects and brand positioning.Marketing Science,15(4), pp.379-394. Bergen, M. and Peteraf, M.A., 2002. Competitor identification and competitor analysis: a broad?based managerial approach.Managerial and decision economics,23(4?5), pp.157-169. Myers, J.H., 1996.Segmentation and positioning for strategic marketing decisions.

Thursday, November 28, 2019

Overpopulation Essays (1229 words) - Transport, Land Transport

Overpopulation How many times have you been sitting in traffic with your engine running and on the right you see a factory letting off pollutants into the air? Well every time you do this and the company does this you and them are polluting are air and water, and leading to the destruction of the Bay Area. Unless we the people of the Bay Area and the factories do something to improve the pollution we are letting off then the Bay Area is in serious danger of losing the beauty of city. When is an area overpopulated? When its population can't be maintained without rapidly depleting nonrenewable resources (or converting renewable resources into nonrenewable ones) and without degrading the capacity of the environment to support the population. (Schuster 27) So is the Bay Area overpopulated? If you interpret overpopulation by Schusters quote then yes the Bay Area is overpopulated. The Bay Area's population has been proven to adversely affect the environment. In recent years the Bay's water has become so polluted that the fish aren't even fit for human consumption and most of the Bay Area's air, still does not attain to the State ozone standard. (Duffy) The pollution is mostly caused by large factories waste and commuters coming into the Bay Area. California needs to come up with a plan on how to control the population before it becomes way out of hand. If the current population trend keeps up the Bay Area won't be able to support the needs of everyone. Overpopulation will always entail human judgments and value laden statements. (Carnell 22) It is the people of the Bay Area that are responsible for this problem of overpopulation and we need to take responsibility before it gets out of hand. Overpopulation will eventually cause the destru ction of the Bay Area's quality of life unless measures are taken to control the population. Water pollution in the Bay Area has recently hit a high due to the economic growth and population of the Bay Area . With the economic growth in the Bay Area this is causing many more people to commute resulting in dioxins polluting are waters. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1999 added 30 Bay Area creeks to the list of polluted lakes and rivers. Some of the rivers that were on that list were the Alameda river, San Leandro river and the Walnut river. In the case of dioxins, scientists say minute concentrations escape from autos and factories in particles of smoke during combustion and float down and settle on land and the Bay. (Kay) Commuters that wait in traffic and keep there engines idling and large factories are the main reason for this problem. Dioxins are the main pollutants, polluting our waters. Two years ago in announcement made by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, they declared that dioxins, solvent furans and dioxin like PCB's were at too high of levels and caused the fish in the Bay to become unsafe for human consumption. Short term, the EPA decision ups the priority for controlling dioxin (EPA). Long term it's a step toward controlling dioxin releases at the source. The goal is to make the Bay fish able so that people can fish the Bay for food in health (Kay). EPA also said , Dioxins bind DNA and disrupt enzymes, hormones and growth, leading to cancer, developmental and reproductive damage, diabetes and immune system impairment. (Kay) These dioxins are very harmful to humans and can cause sicknesses. If we lose all of our local lakes and rivers then we will be losing a valuable resource, which is fish. The Bay Area's lakes and rivers are becoming rapidly polluted and if these trends continue then the majority of the Bay Area's water will be unsafe. Some actions that the Bay Area should focus on to control the pollution are make carpool lanes more selective, to force more people to carpool, encourage companies to offer a monitory incentive for carpooling, increase affordability and availability of public transportation, and control immigration to California. In order to control the pollution, the Bay Area should focus on making all carpool lanes require three people, instead of two. If the Bay Area was to do this

Monday, November 25, 2019

Entrepreneurial Leadership Essays

Entrepreneurial Leadership Essays Entrepreneurial Leadership Essay Entrepreneurial Leadership Essay Entrepreneurial leadership helps develop and sustain elements of the organizational culture. Bergstrom (2004) interpreted that entrepreneurial leadership has three dimensions: 1) take more risk; 2) favor change to obtain the advantage; and 3) compete aggressively. We will discuss the common elements of different theories and philosophies as it relates to the new definition of entrepreneurial leadership. I will discuss my leadership style that I aspire to be, and compare it to dimensions of other leadership styles. Entrepreneurs have a wealth of knowledge at their finger tips using tools and resources available through the Small Business Administration (SBA) and the website SCORE. We will explore and compile useful information that can be obtained from the SBA that entrepreneurs and new business owners can use to gain an advantage on start up. I will describe my personal principles of leadership and explain why I believe in them. Entrepreneurial Leadership Discuss the common elements described in the theories/philosophies of Case, Kouzes, and Drucker including how their principles/strategies relate to the new definition of entrepreneurial leadership. Entrepreneurial leadership is a complex style of leading. Individuals who practice this style are generally; driven, risk taker, aggressive and can recognize when change will give the advantage. Peter Drucker (1985) discusses several strategies of entrepreneurs, but â€Å"Fustest With the Mostest† is one that looks to the future. Entrepreneurs are looking to the future of creating a new market or industry with their innovation. James Kouzes (2008) highlights his five practices of exemplary leadership. One of the five practices, â€Å"Inspire a Shared Vision† is leaders envision the future and create an ideal image of what the organization can become. Steve Case (2009) spoke at George Mason University commencement ceremony about his leadership philosophies of people, passion and perseverance. Case’s â€Å"Perseverance† is looking at what the company was going to do in the future not immediate gratification. The common element of all three of these theories/philosophies is look to the future. Immediate gratification will not suffice for the long term goals. Searching for common elements in the theories/philosophies of; Drucker, Kouzes and Case, I have identified yet another. Drucker’s â€Å"Creative Imitation† entrepreneurs improve a product or market already done. Kouzes’ â€Å"Challenge the process† leaders look for the challenge and ways to improve the process. Case’s â€Å"Passion† focuses on what you are passionate about and keep improving it. The common element is looking for ways to improve. Leaders are never satisfied with just achieving the goal. Once it’s achieved another goal is set. Leaders never stop wanting the best for themselves and the organization. The above mentioned theories/philosophies relate to the new definition of entrepreneurial leadership in that leaders help develop and sustain elements of the organizational culture. They have the ability to recognize opportunities and understand resources and capabilities. The related elements help develop the leaders, as well as, contribute to the success of the business. Discuss your leadership style or the style you aspire to be and how it compares to transactional, transformation, visionary, charismatic, principled, and entrepreneurial leadership. I have a vision of my leadership containing values, harmony, integrity, ethics and inspiration. I hold a high level of respect for my peers and subordinates. I expect my subordinates to do the same. I like to motivate and encourage as well as challenge the mind. I look for big opportunities and very well equipped employees. My leadership style compares more to principled leadership. I’m moral and ethical with high integrity. I do have characteristic of the other leadership styles. Charismatic with vision and articulation, transformational with enthusiasm and energy, transactional with clear chain of command, entrepreneurial with opportunities, and visionary with seeing the big picture. To sum it up, I am a transactional transformed visionary with charismatic principles who likes to lead. Discuss how you would use resources and tools available through the Small Business Administration and SCORE. A wealth of knowledge is compiled in one location for the small business entrepreneurial. The Small Business Administration website offers the Small Business Training Network (SBTN) which is a virtual campus offering online courses, publication and other forms of technical support. Gaining as much knowledge about running a business will give you that more of an advantage in a down economy. I would use the business planning and business management on the virtual campus. This would educate me on preparing a business plan and finding out how to strategically plan for the future of my business. Also on the SBA website they have a course on the SBTN on Finance and Accounting. This course will explain SBA financing and funding for the small business, it will walk you through filling out the loan packet, and it will introduce you to accounting. One of the most important aspects of running a business is the bookkeeping. Every business owner should know how to record income and expenses. I then went to the SCORE website, they have a template gallery for free downloads. I could down load a start up business plan, 12-month cash flow spreadsheet and a 12-month sales forecast spreadsheet. SCORE also provides podcasts for marketing and estimating expenses. There is an enormous amount of education and business prep materials for the small business entrepreneurial at a key stroke. Describe your personal principles of leadership and your rationale for selecting them. My personal principles of leadership include responsibility and honesty. I have to take responsibility for my actions and be honest with the outcome. As the old saying goes, â€Å"the truth can hurt†, and sometimes it can, but as a professional I have to learn to deal with it. I much rather be told the truth than lied to. I would also have to include Self-discipline and integrity as part of my personal principles of leadership. Self-discipline and integrity holds me accountable to myself, the organization, peers and subordinates. You have to be honest to yourself and hold yourself to a higher standard before you can do that for and to others. I have a set of core values that keep me driven and committed to anything I do. References Bergstrom, A. (2004). Synopsis of Entrepreneurial Leadership: Developing and Measuring a Cross-Cultural Construct. Leadership Review, Vol. 4, 103-104. Drucker, P. (1985). Entrepreneurial Strategies. California Management Review, Vol XXVII, No. 2. 9-25. Kouzes, J. (2008). Rising to the Leadership Challenge. Podcast #:08-27. Case, S. (2009). 2009 George Mason University Commencement Speech: People, Passion and Perseverance. casefoundation. org/blog/steve-case-george-mason-university-commencement-speech

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Rhetorical Analysis of news articles about recent political events in Essay

Rhetorical Analysis of news articles about recent political events in tunisia, egypt, libya, and syria - Essay Example In particular, this paper shall study the use of the metaphor Arab Spring by the news media. This paper is being carried out in order to analyze the term and its application within the news media, including its current understanding in the Arab context. The term Arab Spring was first used by George Packer in his article ‘Dreaming of Democracy,’ published in the New York Times in March, 2003. This term is mostly a western media construct, one which is largely associated with the incidents of uprising and rebellion among various Arab nations. In the article by Packer, the author declares that in the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks, the US launched its War against Terror and labeled various countries in the Arab as primary supporters of terrorism, including countries like Iraq and Afghanistan. These countries were also dominated by dictatorial leaders who were bringing their people significant hardships. Many Arab countries, especially those in the Middle East, according to the Western media, were in conditions ripe for revolution and political change. In other words, a possible Arab spring was already in place. This implied a time where the people could ventilate their goals and push against the tight hold of their governm ents. As such, Arab spring became a term which represented change for Arabs who were suffering under dictatorial regimes. Most of the articles (McCann, Farrell, Kershner, MacIntyre, Fox News, Strauss) declare that countries like Libya, Tunisia, Syria, and Egypt have long been under the influence of dictatorial leaders. Moreover, these leaders have built a reputation of prolonged leadership or dominance in their countries (McCann). They have amassed great wealth at the expense of the people, and as a result, the economic status of their people has generally been unfavorable. These countries have also suffered great poverty; moreover, various issues in human rights abuses have become apparent during the reign of their

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Le corbusier Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Le corbusier - Research Paper Example During his life, he received two prestigious awards for his immense development of human life housing standards (Gans 12). He greatly, influenced urbanization in France through his designs that were used to house important departments for the French government. Moreover, he helped curb the increase of slum dwellings through the designing of ultra modern houses of improved standards (Corbusier 9). He died in August 27, 1965 at the age of seventy-seven after taking a swim at the Mediterranean Sea due to a presumed heart attack. This paper will take a broad look into Le Corbusier history, his remarkable work, and his unique architectural style. It will, also cite his most important architectural works that are used as points of reference in today’s house designing field. Le Corbusier initial publications were in French leading to the publication of the first English translation in 1927 by British author Fredrick Etchells. According to, Etchells mass and volume were relatively the same, which was not the case in the original French version of the book. His linguistic style was also desirable, as his choice of words to describe his designs was difficult to paraphrase even to well educate scholars (Wogenscky 54). Arguably, his designs drew inspiration from nature and the environment at large to bring out its unique characteristics. They involved the use of indefinite shapes and sizes to strike an amazing balance of design. His journals were instrumental in the facilitation of acknowledgement of integral architectural reforms. Initially, he kept his work to himself but after gaining exposure through mingling with other established artists, he saw the need to venture into it commercially. In the end, his expansion took a slow turn due to the hefty financial burden imposed on him. His book collection was on drawings and journals that he had done through his traversing of Europe. Subsequently, he was a prophet in the architectural world as his designs are visible in today’s structures. In other words, he foretold the building of the more than one storey building. In addition, this great architect took notice in the work of engineers who built bridges that connected one area to another. In relation to his designs, the people of the lower class would have a better quality of life through living in better-built homes. Controversially, he disregarded The Gare d’Orsay and the Grand Palais buildings on grounds of them not being recognizable architecture (Corbusier 13). In his words, Paris was becoming wasteland architecture wise. Comparisons what he used to describe his pieces as at some point he compared houses to ocean liners as the only difference between the two would be that one is mobile while the other is not. This led to the invention a staircase design borrowed from the ocean liners concept of access. In many of his journals, he exhibited his keen eye in visualizing houses to other objects for example airplanes. He cited the airplanes ability to stay in the air and its mobility at the same time. This is where he decided to use the concept of suspension from the ground for his designs. In that, possibilities were right before people’s eyes but it was hard for them to read the lines. Over the years, his work was the backbone in the building of many town structures. Essentially, the establishment of various cultural heritage sites in his honor was inevitable due to his contribution to modernization. To date, there are

Monday, November 18, 2019

Case report for Harvard Business School Case and solutions to problems Essay

Case report for Harvard Business School Case and solutions to problems in the case - Essay Example At times, there are different other factors apart from these budgeting methods, which should also be kept in mind while making decision. Because when we talk about investment there are two major components; return and risk. The budgeting method used in the cases will help the decision maker in critically analyzing all the available alternatives and choosing the best among them, so that they can achieve profitable cash flows in future. Investment is defined as present commitment of dollar for a specific tenure in order to generate future stream of cash flows which will be greater than current dollar amount1. The investor can be an individual, an organization, a government or a pension fund. In addition to this, investor expects a rate of return on the investment as compensation for the time for which they have made investment2. However, there might be some deviation from expected rate of return from certain investments and such deviation is known as investment risk. Therefore, where there is investment there is return and risk. Investment can be of two types; financial investment and economic investment. A financial investment refers to commitments in terms of monetary terms in order to generate better future cash flows which can be in a form of interest, premium, dividend etc. However, economic investment refers to making fund commitment which will result in increase of capital stock which includes goods and services. Furthermore, investors are looking for investment opportunities that will increase the current pool of funds in future. Hence, investment analysis refers to finding and opting for investment opportunity that will be giving highest rate of return and is having minimum risk. Thus, investors needs to evaluate all the available investment options and should come up with the best possible scenario3. Organizations encounter many investment opportunities but the main issue is opting and evaluating the options. Therefore,

Friday, November 15, 2019

Aerodynamic Development Of Land Speed Record Car Engineering Essay

Aerodynamic Development Of Land Speed Record Car Engineering Essay This project is focused on the baseline aerodynamic analyses and optimisation of a Land Speed Record vehicle in terms of performance of drag and aerodynamic stability, and thereby, speed the vehicle can attain. The vehicle `Stay Gold shown below belongs to the David Tremayne, a Formula One journalist. It is his plan to break the current British Land Speed Record by achieving a speed of about 350 m/s. A photograph of the vehicle in its current form can be seen below. C:UsersCecilDesktopDSC07489.JPG Figure 1, (20)- Photograph of the Land Speed Record vehicle in its current form. In aerodynamic analyses, the prohibitive costs of conventional wind testing along with the advent of computing power, characterised by its decreasing cost has brought the applications of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to the fore front of research and industrial applications, (2). The complications of actual wind tunnel testing ranging from differences in boundary conditions to the scale and mounting of the object is covered well in existing literature, (1). CFD is a method for analysing complex fluid flow problems using numerical methods to solve the Navier-Stokes governing equations. This report begins with the study of high speed vehicle aerodynamics to understand the important physical phenomena taking place, i.e. Air flows linked with different parts of the vehicle. CFD has been established as a proven tool used to perform baseline simulations with different turbulence models, boundary conditions and grids. Consequently, the influence of compressibility by running cases with progressively faster operating speeds up to Mach 0.5 and the effects of varying the geometry of nose and body of the vehicle using low-drag fairings are studied. Literature Review: High Speed Vehicle Aerodynamics: Aerodynamics is the study of various forces when a body is in motion. As we know, any vehicle moving through a fluid experiences forces induced by the fluid on it. When a vehicle moves forward it displaces the static air in front of it and hence disrupts the air flow around the body. These induced fluid forces can be characterised into three main forces which can be represented on a Cartesian coordinate system as shown in the figure below, (19). Figure 2, (19)- Forces acting on a vehicle represented on Cartesian coordinate system The vertical force along the Z axis is called lift. In this context, the vertical force is usually pushing the car towards the ground. Lift force then would be negative. Instead, the term downforce will be used, which is the positive vertical force towards the ground. The horizontal force moving in the opposite direction as the vehicle along the X axis is called drag force. Drag force is created by the vehicles resistance to motion moving through the air. . Drag will always be negative with this axis system, although in the results it will be displayed as positive, (19). The horizontal lateral force along the Y axis is called side force which occurs due to strong cross winds or by vehicles being in proximity to each other. The magnitude of these forces depends on various factors like the geometry speed of the vehicle, mass of the fluid, viscosity compressibility. These three forces are the basic aerodynamic forces that act on a moving solid body. We concentrate on the reducing the drag force alone to achieve higher speeds. Aerodynamic Flows: There are various kinds of aerodynamic flows considered important in a vehicle ranging from flows associated with the external shape of the vehicle to the flows existing in the lubrication and cooling systems of the vehicle which are called external and internal flows respectively, (3). C:UsersCecilDesktopUntitled.jpg Figure 3, (4) Attached flows and separated flows over a body. The streamlines are the curves associated with a pictorial description of a fluid motion, in this case air particles move along the streamlines, (4). Using this definition we can differentiate the flows. When the streamlines near the solid surface follow the shape of the body, the flow is considered to be attached and if the flow does not follow the shape of the body, the flow is considered to be separated, (4). As seen from the figure above, separated flows leave behind trailing vortices which result in an unsteady wake flow which can be seen in the figure below. C:UsersCecilDesktop1-s2_0-S0167610501001611-gr11.gif Figure 4, (5) Trailing vortices in the wake of a conventional fastback car It is also important for Race Car engineers to know whether the flow is laminar or turbulent since features such as flow separation and vehicle drag can change dramatically within these two flows, (4). When a body travels in an undisturbed environment, the flow can be considered laminar. Conditions such as winds or the motion of other vehicles directly affects the flow causing turbulence. Turbulence is a chaotic and random state of motion develops in which the velocity and pressure change continuously with time, [22]. Characteristic of Aerodynamic flows: External Automotive flows can be characterised as those involving excessive flow separation, transitional flows, strong cross flows and streamline curvature with a turbulent wake interacting with the ground boundary layers, (5). The prevailing areas where the separation of air flow takes place are the front and rear windshields. This separation of air flow leads to change in pressure over the surface of the vehicle which constitutes the aerodynamic drag of the vehicle. Pockets of high and low velocities are created around the vehicle because of this separation. The variation of pressure over a vehicle is shown in the figure below and is measured by a coefficient of pressure, denoted by Cp. According to Bernoullis equation, the low pressure region denotes high velocity and high pressure region denotes low velocity. Cp is given by the ratio of the difference in pressure on any point of the vehicle to the dynamic pressure. C:UsersCecilDesktop109741_3mg.jpg Figure 5, (4) Variation of pressure over a vehicle Boundary Layer: The layer between the vehicle and the moving air where the fluid flow is stagnant or less is called the boundary layer and is a significant aspect at high speeds. When the body is in motion, a relative velocity is created between the vehicle and the air around it due to the fluid viscosity. Boundary layers may be either laminar or turbulent depending on the value of the Reynolds number. For lower Reynolds numbers, the boundary layer is laminar and the velocity changes uniformly as one moves away from the wall and for higher Reynolds numbers, the boundary layer is turbulent and the velocity is characterized by unsteady (changing with time) swirling flows inside the boundary layer, (7). In real environment it is inevitable that the boundary layer detaches from the solid body which results in a large increase in the drag on the body. So at high speeds, it is important to maintain an attached and laminar boundary layer with a streamlined shape (4). C:UsersCecilDesktopboundlay.gif Figure 6, (7) Boundary layer on a surface of a vehicle Compressibility effects: Compressibility is the measure of change in volume of the air relative to the speed. We are dealing with subsonic speeds (less than Mach 1) where the air acts as if its an incompressible fluid meaning the density will remain constant though the velocity and pressure are variable, (6). By Bernoullis principle when air enters a body or part of the vehicle, air must travel faster to get to the other side as the bypass air varying the pressure and velocity. The velocity and pressure return to their original form at the outlet. Importance of the speed of sound: Sound is the pressure disturbances radiating in all directions from the vehicle. In subsonic flight sound waves radiate from all points on the vehicle and can travel faster than the vehicle itself as shown on the figure on the left. C:UsersCecilDesktopasw.png Figure 6, (6) Propagation of sound waves in subsonic and supersonic speedsC:UsersCecilDesktopas.png As the vehicle travels at higher speeds, these sound waves pile up at the nose of the aerofoil and create shock waves as shown in the figure on the right. These shock waves are created due to change in pressure velocity of air flow and these waves cannot get ahead the originating point at the speed of sound. There are different kinds of shock waves which are discussed below. Oblique Shock waves are formed on sharp edges of the body with the air surface changing in the direction of air flow, basically on leading and trailing edges of the airfoil, (6). Normal shock waves are formed in front of a blunt body or on the body itself. The molecules pile up at the front and form a detached wave called the `bow wave, (6). Expansion shock waves are formed in the regions of separation on the body or airfoil. Shock waves are very important in high speed aerodynamics as it affects the change in direction of the fluid flow and are relatively negligible in subsonic flows. Relevance of Aerodynamic Drag: In aerodynamics, drag is defined as the force that opposes forward motion of the vehicle through the atmosphere and is parallel in the direction of free stream velocity of the air flow which can be overcome by thrust in order to achieve forward motion, (8). Generally in racing it is important to have to downforce to keep the vehicle stable on the ground. When going at speeds over 100 mph, the real drag is experienced. The aerodynamic drag is denoted by Cd and is given by the formula, Cd= Drag force/ (Dynamic pressure*Area) A body moving through a fluid experiences drag which can be divided into two components, frictional or viscous drag and pressure drag, (11). Frictional Drag is developed due to friction of fluid and the surface it is flowing on, commonly associated with development of boundary layers, (11). Pressure drag is formed from the eddying (turbulent) motions set up by the fluid as it passes over the body which is associated with the formation of wake behind the vehicle. Hence the geometry of nose and body shape plays an important role in reducing drag on vehicle, (12). The figure below shows the driving force required to propel the vehicle forward at a constant speed as a function of the aerodynamic drag. We can see that the aerodynamic drag increases proportional to the square of speed. C:UsersCecilDesktopUntitled.png Figure 7, (11) Driving Speed Vs Vehicle Speed It is also established that the drag prediction over the front of the vehicle, especially involving attached boundary layers and, subsonic flow is far easier and more accurate than the analysis of the rear of the vehicle, (11). Review of existing research, (13): Extensive research has been made in this area with detailed experimentation on the widely known Ahmed model, (12). The Ahmed model is a simple geometric body that retains the main flow features, especially the vortex wake flow where most of the drag is concentrated. This model is used as a reference model to compare our results with. An illustration of this model is shown in the figure below. C:UsersCecilDesktopUntitled.png Figure 8 Left: Geometric dimensions of an Ahmed model, Right: Computational domain The Ahmed reference model is a general car type bluff body shape which is enough for accurate for flow simulations. boundary conditions used for this problem are uniform flow at the inlet no slip on the surface of the body and a non-structural tetrahedral grid approach is applied to this geometry at Re= 4.25106, (13) . This flow was solved using incompressible Navier-Stokes formulations and the drag and pressure were measured. From the figure below, it is observed that the total pressure drag is minimal at the front portion and is high the rear slanted portion of the body. Subsonic interactions are fairly weak as the length of the body is long. C:UsersCecilDesktopUntitled.pngC:UsersCecilDesktopUntitled.png Figure 9A,(13) Contour fill field pressure Figure 9B, (13) Contour fill field velocity And as for the pressure measurements, the presence of vortices at side edges of the slant surface appears to be two dimensional with parallel isobars running over the surface C:UsersCecilDesktopUntitled.pngC:UsersCecilDesktop2.png Figure 10A Flow behind the rear side of the body, Figure 10B Streamlines in the wake Turbulent flows are completely three dimensional and unsteady. Using a time average flow, some sort of macrostructure appears to govern the pressure drag on rear end. Figure 10A shows the different wakes created due to different shapes and edges and Figure 10B shows the streamlines in wake structure. Land Speed Record (LSR) Racing: Ever since the inception of automobiles, there has always been an inherent drive to push the automobile to its limits in terms of performance and speed. Land Speed Record is highest speed achieved by an automobile on land. There are different classes and organisations with respect to the configurations of the vehicle, operating speeds and environment. The current vehicle belongs to the unlimited class, which is a special class for thrust powered vehicles which may be propelled using turbo jet engines and without any limitations over wheeled power, (14). Existing research: The closest vehicle comparable to Stay Gold LSR is the JCB dieselmax (shown below) which holds the land speed record for a diesel-powered vehicle having been driven to over 350mph breaking the world record at the Bonneville Salt Flats. The aerodynamics of the car was designed entirely using ANSYS Fluent by aerodynamicist Ron Ayers whose goal was to achieve an optimal balance between aerodynamic drag, skin force and downforce, (15). It has been observed that the Cd of the vehicle was 0.17. After running a number of simulations, it is shown that higher downforce generated by the wings increases the drag on the vehicle drastically, (16). C:UsersCecilPicturesjcb_dieselmax.jpg Figure 11, (17) Picture of a JCB dieselmax streamliner Another example is the Buckeye Bullet 3 (BB 3), which operates on a battery. This vehicle was developed using an alternate aerodynamic method. In order to test the body shape and geometry a new wind tunnel model was constructed though it is time consuming and costly. The vehicles frontal area was significantly reduced allowing the driver to be placed at an inclined position keep safety in mind, (18) though the driver in middle (DIM) configuration used in BB1 BB 2 has better performance compared to the former. BB 3 also achieves more stability because it maintains negative pitch over higher speeds ensuring the normal loads on the tyres are not reducing, improving traction and yaw stability, (18). BB 3 had a 17 % reduce in the Cd compared to its predecessors. C:UsersCecilPicturesBuckeye-Bullet-3-thumb-450255.jpg Figure 12, (18) Photograph of a Buckeye Bullet 3 at the Bonneville Salt Flats Computational Fluid Dynamics: Introduction: Computational fluid dynamics or CFD is the analysis of systems involving fluid flow, heat transfer and associated chemical reactions by means of computer based simulation, [21]. CFD is used in wide range of industries. CFd contains a set of codes structured around the Navier-Stokes Equations (NSE) that are used to solve fluid flow problems. NSE are the governing equations of Fluid dynamics which are shown below. C:UsersCecilPicturesnseqs.gif Figure 16, [22] Navier-Stokes equations of three dimensional fluid flows The NSE consists of time-dependant continuity equation for conservation of mass, time dependant conservation of momentum equations and conservation of energy equations, [22]. The integral forms of these equations are solved using Finite Volume Method (FVM) which is the discretisation method ANSYS Fluent uses. Discretisation is a method of converting higher order integral equations into a system of algebraic equations. These set of algebraic equations are later solved by an iterative method, [23]. As mentioned earlier, at higher Reynolds numbers flows are observed to become turbulent. We used turbulence models in CFD to approximately model the turbulence in real time environment and results obtained are deemed near accurate. All codes in CFD contain 3 main elements: 1.) A pre-processor, 2.) A solver, 3.) A post processor, [22]. Pre-processing: The activities involved in this stage are Definition of geometry in the computational domain Grid generation discretising the domain into smaller cells ( grid or mesh) Define fluid properties and specify the appropriate boundary conditions Solving: There are different techniques to solve numerical equations. CFD uses finite volume method which is the most established method in different softwares. The steps involved in this stage are Integration of NSE over control volumes of the domain Discretisation of resulting integral equations into a set of algebraic equations Solution of the algebraic equations using an iterative method Post-processing: A large amount of work has been put into CFD packages to visualize the data with outstanding graphics due to the increasing demand in the engineering field. Some of the most popular data visualisation tools are Domain geometry and grid display 2D and 3D surface and vector plots Streamlined and shaded contour plot At present, almost all Formula 1 teams use CFD to constantly optimise the aerodynamics of their cars for better performances in a race. The bottleneck of CFD was quick and efficient construction of a functional grid which has become more user friendly in modern times which makes it easy for meshing, [22]. Conclusions: Aerodynamics CFD play a key role in the optimisation of a Land Speed Record vehicle. The geometry, powerplant, wheel configurations and vehicle dynamics are important parameters in achieving reduced drag. Open wheel configurations cause more overall drag on the vehicle. Also the tyres effective radius changes with speed and is necessary to test the relationship between the vehicle speed and tyres geometric configuration due to constant downforce exerted on the vehicle by the wings. This was the case revealed in the JCB streamliner. Project Plan: Study Vehicle Aerodynamics Understand the various aerodynamic flows involved in a vehicle. Get a good grip on High Speed Aerodynamics. Read about Importance of the speed of sound in achieving high speeds and influence of compressibility. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Reading on the background of CFD and understand how Navier-Stokes equations are derived, Numerical discretisation of equations using Taylor series. Understand turbulence modelling, grid sensitivity and boundary conditions relevant to the problem. CFD Tutorials Tutorial 1 Create basic geometry for backward facing step (2D). Tutorial 2 Create basic geometry for lid driven cavity (2D). Tutorial 3 Create 3D model of cylindrical body with a rectangular grid and run simulations. Gantt chart: C:UsersCecilDownloadsAerodynamic Development of LSR (1).png Progress to date: With the help of Dr. Carl Gilkesons CFD tutorials, creating meshes of basic geometrical shapes and running simulation on them was possible. The first tutorial involves creating the geometry in Design Modeller for lid driven cavity. The mesh was created in ANSYS Mesh and running simulations with specified boundary conditions, velocity pressure was done in ANSYS Fluent. In the figure below, the mesh for the lid driven cavity is shown. C:UsersCecilDesktopCavity- Vel Contours.png Figure 13A Mesh for lid driven cavity Figure 13B Velocity contours on the top wall of the cavity C:UsersCecilDesktopCavity.png The mesh was solved for 1000 iterations and were run on the top wall with a transitional velocity of 1.4607e-03 (Re=100), ensuring the flow is laminar. The velocity contours are filled and can be seen in figure 13B.The second tutorial involves creating a backward facing step. This model is solved (1000 iterations) for turbulent conditions so a turbulence model (k-epsilon) was created and specified with an inlet velocity of 40m/s. Also this model is discretised to second order upwind for momentum, turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent dissipation rate. The results are shown below. C:UsersCecilDesktopUntitled.png Figure 14A- Mesh for Back Facing Step Figure 14B- Velocity contours on the backstepC:UsersCecilDesktopMesh Backw step.png It is noted that the horizontal component of the velocity is negative behind the step as the flow reattaches after detaching due to high Reynolds number, [20]. 3D model of a cylinder: I:Ansys projectscylinder.jpg Figure 15A 15B(below) Mesh for 3D cylinder in a rectangular grid In the figure above, a cylindrical mesh in a rectangular grid was created in ANYSYS Mesh. A rectangular grid is created in the domain to solve finite volume system of equations and to get more accurate solutions. The model was solved for constant pressure at the inlet to get reversed flow on all faces using hybrid initialisation as seen below. I:Ansys projects12.jpg References [1] P.R. Spalart, Strategies for turbulence modelling and simulations, Boeing Commercial Planes(Feb 1999). [2] W.H.Hucho, Aerodynamics of Road vehicle 4th edition. [3] `New Directions in Race car aerodynamics, Joseph Katz. [4] Joseph Katz, `Race Car Aerodynamics, 2nd edition. [5] ] Ahmed, S. R. , Gawthorpe, R. G. and Mackrodt, P. -A.(1985) Aerodynamics of Road- and Rail Vehicles, Vehicle System Dynamics, 14: 4, 319-392 [6] `High Speed Aerodynamics, Seminar, Harry L Whitehead. [7] http://galileo.phys.virginia.edu/classes/311/notes/fluids2/node11.htm [8] http://www.pilotfriend.com/training/flight_training/aero/drag.htm [9] http://www.princeton.edu/~asmits/Bicycle_web/blunt.html [10] Miles Jackson , B. Taylor Newill and Perry Carter ,Racecar Aerodynamic Optimization for an E-1 Class Streamliner Using Arbitrary Shape Deformation , SAE Technical paper 2007-01-3858. [11] Hiroyuki Ozawa, Dai Higashida,`Development of Aerodynamics of a Solar Race Car, Honda RD, 1998 SAE. [12] SiniÃ…Â ¡a Krajnovic, Lars Davidson, Flow Around a Simplified Car Part 1: Large Eddy Simulation, [13] `CFD Modelling of Flow around the Ahmed vehicle model, Gerardo Frank and Jorge DElia, Centro Internacional de Metodos Compucionales en Ingeneria. [14] http://www.landspeed.com/archive/classroom/classlsrbasics.html. [15]http://www.newmaterials.com/News_Detail_Aerodynamics_of_jcb_dieselmax_car_designed_entirely_with_cfd_code_fluent_9408.asp#axzz2H86gSGFW [16] `Aerodynamic Development of Buckeye Bullet Electric LSR, Carrington Bork, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ohio State University. [17] http://www.carsbase.com/photo/photo_full.php?id=45469 [18] www.buckeyebullet.com/BB3.html [19] `Fundamentals of Vehicle Dynamics, Thomas D. Gillespie, Society of Automotive Engineers, 400 Commonwealth drive, Warrendale, PA 15096-0001. [20] CFD tutorials, Dr. Carl Gilkeson, University of Leeds. [21] http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/k-12/airplane/nseqs.html [22] `An Introduction to CFD, H K Versteeg and Malasekara, 2nd edition.